Friday, July 24, 2020
The Definition of Pro Bono in Law Every day, people commit crimes. On the other hand, some fall victim of crimes or false accusations. No matter the situation, people need legal services daily.However, not everyone can afford to pay lawyers. Many people end up on the side of injustice just because theyre poor.Thatâs why pro bono work is vital in the legal profession.This practice is common with lawyers.In fact, 55% of attorneys provided pro bono services in 2017, according to the Ohio Legal Assistance Foundation. Source: OlafWHAT IS PRO BONO?Pro bono is the short version of the Latin phrase pro bono publico. This phrase means âfor the public good.âIn simple terms, pro bono work is the service a professional renders to an individual without any compensation before or after offering the service.Even though pro bono is applicable to all professions, the term is popularly used in the legal profession.Offering pro bono legal services starts from the time an individual is a law student to when a lawyer has been called to bar and is practicing.The American Bar Associations Model Rule 6.1 states that every lawyer âhas a professional responsibility to provide legal services to those unable to pay.âAccording to the American Bar Association:âpro bono legal services are personally performed, without charge or expectation of fee, to persons of limited means or organizations that serve persons of limited means.â From this definition, free legal service offered with the aim of turning the client into a paying client in the future is not a pro bono service.Likewise, a legal service carried out with an expectation to get paid at the beginning but changing your mind later cant be classified as pro bono.Another exception is legal services provided to friends and family as a favor.Often, the people concerned are able to pay and this is not regarded as pro bono work.In most cases, theres no fixed number of hours that a lawyer must use for pro bono services.There are many suggestions though.For example, the American Bar Association recommends that every lawyer should offer at least 50 hours of pro bono services annually.There are also different recommendations of the same, higher, or lower number of hours in different state bars.Another way a lawyer can contribute to the pro bono work is to support lawyers or legal clinics that offer these services.The reality in many big firms is that most lawyers fail to do pro bono work.And for those that do, they spend far less than the recom mended number of hours yearly.One of the reasons for this is that most of the big law firms make no provision for pro bono work.In cases where theres a provision for it, associates are not encouraged to do pro bono work as they want to rack up the number of their billed hours as high as possible.This means as lawyers are trying to bill as many hours as possible to get promoted and go up the ladder in their law firms, the public good is often neglected.According to a survey of 47,000 attorneys in 24 states by the American Bar Associations Standing Committee on Pro Bono and Public Service, almost 1 out of 5 attorneys had never done pro bono work of any kind. Source: AmericanBarAccording to attorneys, the top 3 sources of discouragement are lack of time, personal or family obligations, and lack of skills or experience.PRO BONO WORK AS A LAW STUDENTPro bono services should begin while an individual is studying law.Many schools have different policies and requirements regarding the amount of pro bono work a student should engage in.A requirement for a law student doing pro bono legal services is that they have to do it under the supervision of an attorney.This means an attorney would guide and evaluate the student.Theyâll also review the studentâs work before itâs provided to a client.Likewise, pro bono work for a law student is usually done during the academic year.Different states have different requirements of pro bono hours before a graduate law student is called to bar.Some states require a number of pro bono hours while some have no requirements regarding pro bono work.For instance, the New York State Court requires applicants i nto the New York State bar to have completed 50 hours of pro bono work.When law students get engaged in pro bono work, theyâre more likely to provide these services when they graduate and become practicing lawyers.PRO BONO WORK IN LAW FIRMSLaw students are expected to carry out pro bono work before they complete their studies and are called to the bar.This practice is expected to continue when a lawyer is called to bar.Many lawyers seek to work in law firms after their graduation to gain more experience and consequently build their legal career.In most cases, whether a lawyer will get involved in pro bono cases may depend on the culture of their law firm.Its easier for a lawyer to do pro bono work if their law firm makes a provision or has a department for pro bono services.Otherwise, its difficult for a lawyer to get involved in pro bono work.If one of the main aims of a lawyer is to bill as many hours of work as possible, their last line of thought will be pro bono work.Many new associates, especially in big law firms, go through a lot of stress for years before they can go up the ladder in their law firms.Whether they climb up or not may also be tied to the number of hours they bill.Therefore, many lawyers may be more focused on clients that are able to pay for legal services rather than those that are unable to pay.In some cases, a law firm might prevent the use of the firmâs resources for pro bono cases.Likewise, in a firm that disallows lawyers from doing pro bono services during business hours or places restrictions on the number of pro bono clients a lawyer can take, only a few lawyers will do more pro bono legal services.However, in law firms that require lawyers to carry out a number of hours of pro bono services, lawyers will get involved more in the service.Other activities a law firm can engage in to encourage its lawyers to do pro bono work include having a pro bono manager, having a policy that supports employee pro bono tasks, allowing pro bono work to be done during business hours, identifying and referring pro bono work to lawyers, etc.AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION SURVEYFor pro bono services, most lawyers provide services that are related to their areas of specialization. In the American Bar Associations survey, 69% of attorneys took a pro bono case that was within their area of expertise.This makes sense as its easier to help people in an area of law that a lawyer is familiar with.When lawyers take pro bono cases out of their area of expertise, it was usually in the area of military, immigration, housing, civil rights, and public benefits.When lawyers took on pro bono cases, it was usually consistent with their expectations before taking the case.71% of attorneys claimed that their pro bono cases went the way they expected it to.The expectations are usually in the form of the time spent on the case and the complexity of the case.In a way, their prediction is often accurate because most lawyers are doing pro bono works in their area of expertise.NUMBER OF PRO BONO HOURSIn 2016, attorneys who did pro bono legal services spent an average of 36.9 hours.This is far lower than the ABAâs recommendation. One of the factors responsible for this is that many lawyers fail to take on full representation of clients when they offer pro bono services.More than half (54.6%) of attorneys only provided limited scope representation and they spent an average of 16.4 hours on each case.Generally, attorneys who provided limited scope representation had a lower number of hours of pro bono work.For instance, attorneys who only provided limited scope representation for pro bono work had an average of 40.1 hours of the work in 2016.Meanwhile, attorneys who provided only full representation had an average of 81.8 hours of pro bono service in the year.However, attorneys who combined both types of representation had the highest number of hours of pro bono work among attorneys.These lawyers had an average of 114.2 hours of work in the year. Source: AmericanBarAdded to this, 48% of attorneys did not undertake pro bono services that year. This is almost 1 out of 2 attorneys.It shows that many lawyers would rather fill their time with paying work than working for a client who has no money.Only 20% of attorneys provided more than 50 hours of pro bono services to clients in 2016.This is a low portion of the members of the legal profession considering how important this step is to society.However, when attorneys decide to take pro bono works, they usually take on cases of individuals rather than organizations. 81.3% of attorneys who take cases claim they take individual cases.While offering pro bono legal services, lawyers carry out many tasks.Some of these include meeting and interviewing the client, reviewing or drafting legal documents, writing letters, providing advice, speaking with other attorneys, providing full representation in court, negotiating settlements with other parties, etc.The most common activities carried out by lawyers were providing advice to clients with 74.1% of lawyers who do pro bono work doing it.However, a far lower number of lawyers provided full representation to their clients in court with only 29% doing it. Source: AmericanBarThe most common area of law served by far in pro bono services was family law. 32% of cases with lawyers who offer full representation and 19% of those who offered limited scope representation.Apart from this, other top areas for pro bono work were criminal, litigation, estate planning/probate, immigration, and real estate.The thing though, is that after family law, the popularity of each area differs according to whether attorneys carry out full representation or limited scope.ATTORNEYâS VIEW OF PRO BONO SERVICESIt is no surprise that lawyers see pro bono as an important part of the legal profession. In fact, 80.6% of attorneys believe that pro bono services are either somewhat or very important.But despite the majority of lawyers seeing it as an important endeavor, a far lower number actually want to provide the service.For example, only 45% claim theyâre likely or very likely to carry out pro bono work in the next year while about a quarter claim theyâre u nlikely or very unlikely to carry out such a task. Source: AmericanBarLawyers who participate in pro bono legal services have positive views of the service and this encourages them to do more of it.The most popular factors that encourage lawyers to take on pro bono cases are to help people in need, fulfill ethical obligations, and as a professional duty.The biggest motivators are the first two as lawyers feel empathetic to ensure justice is done for even people who are unable to pay legal fees.In many of these situations, the client would have lost a valuable possession without legal representation.Apart from motivating factors, there are also discouraging factors that reduce the number of hours attorneys are able to spend doing pro bono work.Lack of time is the biggest discouraging factor.There are other factors like lack of necessary skills or experience needed for the case, scheduling conflicts with potential court appearances, unrealistic expectations of clients, too costly, lack of information about opportunities, discouragement from employer/firm, etc.What is evident from these discouraging factors is that it comes from various quarters.Some are due to the lawyer, some client, and some the law firm.This shows thereâs still a big room for improvement in terms of getting more lawyers to get involved in pro bono legal services.FINDING PRO BONO OPPORTUNITIESOne of the main challenges attorneys can face is finding clients for pro bono legal services.For instance, if you donât meet people who are unable to pay for their legal services, how do you get involved in pro bono cases?The truth is that when thereâs a will, thereâs a way. Lawyers have found many ways to find pro bono clients.There are organizations that usually handle pro bono cases and attorneys reach out to these organizations to learn of suitable cases they can take.As a matter of fact, 45.4% of attorneys had contacted organizations regarding pro bono cases while 36.3% had contacted a legal aid or pro bono organization.18% of lawyers had cont acted their local bar association and 12.4% had contacted other organizations.In another way, attorneys are also contacted to take on pro bono cases. This is possible for a lawyer who had taken on pro bono cases in the past or has a relationship with a pro bono organization.47.5% of attorneys had been contacted by a legal aid or pro bono organization, 34% had been contacted by their local bar association, 29% had been contacted by their state bar association, and 21.3% had been contacted by other organizations.With these major ways of finding pro bono cases, an attorney can find relevant cases to their expertise.Initially, an attorney may have to reach out to some organizations to find pro bono cases. Subsequently, these organizations will usually contact the attorney when there are relevant cases.An attorney can also visit the pro bono center page on the American Bar Association website to get more information about pro bono services.CONCLUSIONThe legal profession aims to provide j ustice without any sign of partiality. But often, justice can be far-fetched for people who are unable to get adequate legal representation.This is why pro bono services are an avenue for lawyers to help people without any expectation of compensation. However, itâs too simplistic to say thereâs no compensation.The biggest compensation of pro bono work is to be able to help a person in need get the justice they deserve.An attorney can feel satisfied that theyâve done the right thing. After all, the legal profession is not all about the amount of money you can make.Some lawyers get more satisfaction from pro bono work than their repetitive law firm work.In some cases, people who need pro bono services are fighting against bigger companies or entities that have enough money to bury their criminal acts.A lawyer can ensure that the helpless individual gets justice from the bigger entities. Pro bono work starts when an individual is a student at the law school.From here, the student can understand the importance of this practice and continue it when they get called to bar.Pro bono service is a practice that most lawyers see as important but that many are reluctant to do. Itâs a service to the good of the people that any attorney must engage in.
Friday, May 22, 2020
Progress is defined as movement toward a destination. Conflict is defined as being incompatible or at variance with something. When paired together progress is questioned as to its ability in light of either the absence or presence of conflict. For as long as questions have been asked this question is one that finds itself being answered within the realm of political institutions and interrogated within the universal discussion as to whether or not human beings as a species can evolve or move past its current point without the presence of some distinguished force. In thinking on this question two scholars immediately present themselves. They are Charles Darwin and Karl Marx. Both of these men, one a naturalist/geologist, the other anÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Put more simply, Darwin describes a struggle for existence, one that permeates throughout all species on Earth, including human beings. In light of his ideas, Darwin would agree that progress is not possible in the absence o f conflict. This is because in all of his arguments, conflict is something that cannot cease to exist. Throughout Origins, Darwin makes multiple references to nature but never specifically defines what it is. He writes for example, Ã¢â¬Å" We have seen that man by selection can certainly produce great results Ã¢â¬ ¦ given to him by the hand of Nature Ã¢â¬ (108), and Ã¢â¬Å" The face of Nature may be compared to a yielding surface, with ten thousand sharp wedges packed close together and driven inwards by incessant blows, sometimes one wedge being struck, and then another with greater force Ã¢â¬ (111). The nature that Darwin is referring to is the nature of conflict. In those passages where he uses the word nature, one only need change the word to conflict and the meaning of the passage remains the same, as if Darwin had used the word originally. Conflict, or what Darwin calls nature, is both the external and the internal force that drives forward the progression of natural sele ction amongst species. He only counts however, one of those forces as being significant enough to have a varying affect on the process of natural selection.Show MoreRelatedRelationship Between Tourism and Cultural Heritage Management: Evidence from Hong Kong7693 Words Ã |Ã 31 Pages2003; accepted 4 February 2004 Abstract This paper examines the nature of the relationship between tourism and cultural heritage management in the established urban destination of Hong Kong. In the past, conÃ¯ ¬âict theory has formed the basis of most of the studies of relationships between tourism and other sectors. However, a conÃ¯ ¬âict paradigm may not be the most appropriate framework. Instead, the authors outline a continuum reÃ¯ ¬âecting different levels of maturity in the relationship between theseRead MoreSociology of Tourism - Pro Poor Tourism6321 Words Ã |Ã 26 PagesKrapf, in 1941, defined tourism as the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity. In 1976, the Tourism Society of Englands definition was: Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities durin g the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposesRead MoreSociology of Tourism - Pro Poor Tourism6314 Words Ã |Ã 26 PagesKrapf, in 1941, defined tourism as the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity. 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Thursday, May 7, 2020
Throughout this course, writing 101, I have learned how to improve my writing in many aspects. This course has taught me the correct ways to write a college essay and has helped me get out of old habits that I got away with in high school. When I first found out that we were required to take a writing class I was nervous because I am not the bets writer. For the class, we were required to write down a list of goals that we would work towards through the class to help improve in writing. For me there was a lot I could have worked on so I made sure I wrote out goals that I would stick to in order to get a good foundation in writing at the college level. My main outcomes for this course where that I needed to do my essays at least a weekÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦I went back and make the corrections then had her read it over again. I read it through one last time after completing all of my corrections made by my professor and handed it in. For every other assignment that we complete d for this class I abided by this routine. I knew that I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a strong writer so I had to put in more effort than most other kids in order to improve my papers. On one of my latest essays on Christmas and the reason behind gift giving, I started it early and was able to write paragraph by paragraph in order to make sure I had the correct structure. I can successfully say that I have completed this outcome for every writing assignment that I completed. I have learned that it helps me gather my ideas better and write better when IÃ¢â¬â¢m not being rushed like I used to be because I would wait till the last day. For my second outcome, I wanted to make sure that I understood my sources before I started writing my research papers. By this I mean that I wanted to have all my quotes analyzed on an outline before I started my paper so that I would have a clear idea of what I was writing about. Our one research paper that we had to do was our most recent paper on holiday traditions, and at first, I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t follow my outcome and I just started writing and my paper was poorly organized and structured and looked like I just threw the words all over the paper. I deleted that paper and read through my articles and took notesShow MoreRelatedReflection On Writing1796 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesNathan West Lang-120 Professor Graves 11/12/2017 Where Am I Now? A Final Reflection Narrative on Writing Writing is difficult. It is difficult to begin, difficult to stop and difficult to plan. However, it is surprisingly satisfying to create something that is entirely your own, made from your mind and a topic. Or at least this how I, as a eighteen year old college student, perceive the act of writing. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(60) " growth opportunities in selective new high growth markets\." ALLIANCE BOOTS PLC: INTRODUCTIION: Alliance Boots is a leading international pharmacy-led health and beauty group serving a wide range of products and services to customers over 100 years in the UK. We are trying to identify how the Boots works internally and externally to reach its goal. We are also trying to find out how the Boots motivates its employees to be productive. We will write a custom essay sample on Case Study of Alliance Boots Plc or any similar topic only for you Order Now We will also discuss its organizational structure and design to communicate each other function of the organization. We will discuss its appraisal system and organizational record keeping. We will also find out about its brand image to the stakeholder. Customers are at the heart of their business and they are devoted to providing extraordinary customers and patients care by offering innovative products Ã¢â¬ËOnly at BootsÃ¢â¬â¢ with exceptional values. People are their strength and tell us that Boots is a excellent place to work. They always aim to be the employers of choice by attracting and retaining the most talented and passionate people. BACK GROUND OF THE COMPANY: Boots had established its roots in the mid-19th century by John Boot, an agricultural worker, at Nottingham, in the UK. He opened a small herbalist store on Goose Gate in 1849. After JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s death in 1860, his widow, Mary, continued trading, with the help of her young son, Jesse, who became a full partner when he was 21. The store continued to thrive. In 1877, Jesse took sole control of the Boots. In 1920, he sold Boots to the United Drug Company of America. In 1933, the United Drug Company sold its holding in Boots to a group of British financiers led by John Boot, JesseÃ¢â¬â¢s son. Under JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s chairmanship, the first overseas store opened in New Zealand in 1936; key brands No7 and Soltan was both launched in the 1930s. He also continued his parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ tradition of staff welfare Ã¢â¬â improving working conditions, reducing hours and introducing pensions for all employees. More recent decades, the introduction of successful brands such as 17 cosmetics and Botanics and new business ventures such as Boots Opticians are more popular to the customers. A new chapter in Boots history started on 31st July, 2006with the merger with Alliance Unichem, to become part of Alliance Boots, an international pharmacy-led health and beauty group. Their product and services are Health and beauty, Personal care, Cosmetics and toiletries, Baby care, Dental health care, OTC and Prescription medicines, Perfumes, and Skin care. (www. bized. co. uk,) MISSION: Their mission is to be the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading pharmacy-led health and beauty group. They seek to develop their core business activities of pharmacy-led and beauty retailing and pharmaceutical wholesaling and distribution across the world and become a significant player in many leading international markets. PURPOSE: Their purpose is to deliver products that help people look and feel their best. VALUES: They believe in making a difference for the well being of the communities they serve. The core values are described below. * PARTNERSHIP: It includes respect, understanding and working together. They create and build value through partnerships and alliances, inside and outside the business. * TRUST: The essence of the way they do business. People trust because they deliver on their promises. * SERVICES: They hold high standards of care and service for customers and their people. * ENTREPRENEURSHIP: They are innovators, seeking new challenges and having a winning entrepreneurship. SIMPLICITY: They are proud of being lean and efficient, uncomplicated and easy to do business fairly. (www. allianceboots. com) AT A GLANCE: * Operating over 20 countries. * It has115, 000 employees. * Operating more than 3,250 health and beauty retail stores. * Dispensing more than 245 million items each year. * 1500 Stores in the UK and Irish Republic. * Serving 420 million customers (pa). * Operat ing over 360 pharmaceutical wholesale distribution centers. * Cash generated from operation ? 1130 million. * Revenue is ? 22. 5 billion. * EBITDA is ? 1,360 million. * Trading Profit is ? 1,074 million. www. allianceboots. com) BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT OF THE BOOTS: The organizational environment consists of internal and external environment. Alliance Boots operates in highly attractive markets with potential for significant long term growth. The Company expects to increase life expectancy and product innovation to continue to drive demand for prescription medicines and related healthcare services. At the same time, they believe that a growing customer focus on personal well being will drive demand for health and beauty consumer products and related services. Fig: The Organizational Environment of Boots: Legal Environmental Technological Political Social Economic External Environment Communication External Environment Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Innovation Strategy Change Internal Environment (WriterÃ¢â¬â¢s observation) INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT: In order to sustain an organization, it is necessarily to adapt internal structures, process and behaviors to enable to cope with complexity and the pace of external change. It is concerned about organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy, teamwork, management, leadership style, working practices, empowerment, employment patterns, etc. * STRATEGY: Johnson et al (2008) say that strategy is the direction and scope of an organization over the long term, which achieves advantage in a changing environment with the fulfilling stakeholder expectation. The BootÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy is to focus on its two business activities of pharmacy-led health and beauty retailing and pharmaceutical wholesaling and distribution, while increasingly developing and internationalizing product brands to create a third dimension. * CHANGE: According to Mullins (2007), every change becomes welcomed as an opportunity for increasing efficiency and building new organizational success. Boots increased female participation in the workforce and growth of services. It also changed the sophisticated information technology where cognitive skill demands. It has created fast flat and flexible organizational design. The company plans to further increasing the number of Boots stores through new openings and pharmacy acquisitions and have also just commenced a trial with Waitrose to sell selective product ranges in each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s stores. * INNOVATION: According to Mullins, innovations arise from technological advancements, new processes, and improvements in all major areas of organizational activity. Boots concentrates in expanding their core business in existing markets, continuing to deliver productivity improvements and other cost savings, pursuing growth opportunities in selective new high growth markets. You read "Case Study of Alliance Boots Plc" in category "Free Case study samples" Boots is always launching products in the new markets. * COMMUNICATION: Boots always focus on customers/patients needs and services. Their communication and distribution channel is well updated which improves productivity. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT: The external environment is the pressures of the organization from outside that can influence and affect the performance of the organization. The significant environmental pressures are the PESTEL which locates for Political, Economic, Social, Technology, Environmental, and Legal factors. * POLITICAL: The political environment of a country predisposes by the political organizations such as philosophy of political parties, ideology of government, legislation, taxation, employment law, trade union policy and activities. Boots are also affected for political decision in the UK. The UK government is cutting the employees from most of the sectors. As a result, people will have no enough money to spend on health and beauty. ECONOMIC: It is mainly concern about total GDP of the country as well as consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ expenditures and disposable income. It is also included currency exchange rates, tax regime, wage rates, raw material prices etc. Boots is a multinational company. So, during recession, UKÃ¢â¬â¢s currency rates fell down and Boots lost lots of money to exchanged currency from other country to UK. * SOCIAL: It concerns about demographic trends, lifestyle preferences, social values, distribution of incomes, education and health, labor mobility, attitude to work, discrimination trends, skills availability, etc. Boots never discriminates any employee. Boots always tries to adopt different life style in different countries, languages, traditions, people expectations etc. * TECHNOLOGICAL: The technology adopted by the industries determines the type and quality of goods and services to be produced and the type and quality of plant and equipment to be used. The technological environment influences the business in terms of investment in technology. It refers to the innovations of IT, nanotechnology, new production methods and process, level of expenditure on RD by organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s rivals etc. Boots uses to invest more money on research and development of its cosmetics and medicines. ENVIRONMENTAL: It links to the Ã¢â¬ËGreen issueÃ¢â¬â¢ of the environment, reducing toxic emissions, pollution, spills, hazard prevention, disposable of wastes or rubbishes etc. Boots dedicates to reducing the carbon intensity of their business and continued to launch specific carbon reduction initiatives. For example, Boots UK launched in August 2009 an awareness campaign aimed at reducing energy use in its retail stores. In February 2010, Boots UK received the Carbon Trust Standard in recognition of recent achievements in reducing its Ã¢â¬Ëcarbon footprintÃ¢â¬â¢. Over 50% of the waste, they create as a Group recycles. * LEGAL: It deals with international law, legislation and taxation, human rights concerns, local regulation. It also concerns international trade agreements, employment and safety law, and product safety issues etc. Alliance Boots operates in regulated markets. It could be adversely affected by changes to existing regulation, new regulation such as licensing regimes for pharmacies, prescription processing regimes. www. boots. com) ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES OF BOOTS: Director Director Director Finance Director Chief Executive Health Beauty Chief Executive Legal Chief Executive Health Beauty CEO Chief Executive Pharmaceutical Wholesale Division Chairman of the Board Director Director Director Director Chief Finance Director (www. theofficialboard. com) Organizational structure is th e formal system of task and reporting relationships that controls, coordinates and motivates employees so that they work together to achieve organizational goals. (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004. P. 874) It is the pattern of relationships among positions in organizations and among members of the organization. Structure makes possible application of the process of management and creates a framework of orders and commands through which the activities of the organization can be planned, organized, directed and controlled. Mullins (2007, p. 564) Alliance Boots has a flat organizational chart. In the structure, we can see that there are eight directors including Board of Chairman and non executive directors. Under Board of Chairman, there are six Chief Executives who are responsible to report to Chairman. All the Executives are the same level in decision making. This structure helps Boots to do better communication between top management and employees as well as increased team spirit too. Hence, we can see less bureaucratic power which helps to make decision easily. It also improves sound coordination and timely passing information among the different department within the Boots which increases productivity. This flat structure is mostly helpful to do faster responses to changing condition. This flat structure has demerits in Boots. Here, workers may have more managers for one job which creates confusions. It is mostly helpful for a small organization but Boots is such a large organization, where it will have demerits. As a result, this will reduce the growth of the organization. (www. learnmanagement2. com) (www. blurtit. com) MOTIVATIONAL FRAMEWORK: MOTIVATIONAL Individual Colleagues The Manager Customers Organization FRAMEWORK (www. ashridge. org. uk) ORGANIZATION: The organization will provide the structure and processes such as performance management and reward schemes, training, interesting work. In the organization, leaders and managers must earn the respect of others, create an appropriate working environment and provide opportunities for people to grow and develop. THE INDIVIDUAL: Individuals need to be more open about share values with colleagues and managers. Organizations need the accurate strategy and processes that make it abundantly clear that individuals have a responsibility for their own development. THE MANAGERS: The Boss provides a crucial role in the motivation process not only acting as a role model but valuing each of colleagues in a way that makes them feel motivated. COLLEAGUES: Colleagues can play a crucial role in motivation at work. By sharing skill and ability, every employee will be motivated in the work place. THE CUSTOMERS: People will be motivated by feedback from both internal and external customers and clients. We should regularly review and share the results of feedback with staff. FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY: The proportion that measures the efficiency of the resources concerned in production of products and services is called productivity. It is also the ratio of inputs and outputs of the production. (www. ayushveda. om) The factors that affect the employee productivity are as follow: * TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT: If the employees are not trained properly in their particular job role, then the organization cannot get the benefit from the employees. Sometimes Boots cannot get enough time to schedule the training timetable. COMMUNICATION: There will be constant communication among top management, middle management and the em ployees. But sometimes there is miscommunication or take time to communicate within the Boots because of managersÃ¢â¬â¢ holiday, Internet break down etc. * WORK LIFE BALANCE: If the husband or wife works together and there are kids, there will be a problem to match the time table. Boots gives priority to those families. * PAY AND BENEFITS: If the employees get under pay, a late payment, or wrong payment, then they will not be encouraged to perform better the job. * REWARD AND RECOGNATION: Sometimes employees are not rewarded for meritorious services which create employees opposition to complete the job. * WORKING ENVIRONMENT: If the working environment is not suitable for employees or the coordination and cooperation is lacking, the productivity will be low. EQUALITY AND DIVERSITY: If there is any discrimination, the productivity will decrease and employees will dissatisfy. Boots strictly follows the rules and regulation about equality. * OTHERS: There are few more factors which affect the productivity, such as poor management, slow decision taking, lack of trust, stress level, conflict, frustration, etc. WAYS OF MOTIVATING KEY EMPLOYEES IN BOOTS An organ ization has many attributes to its success one of which is motivation of staff of the organization. Boots has various ways of motivating their workers leaving them satisfied which encourage them to go ahead and deliver. * TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT: Boots provides an online module and training for their staff. This enables them to fulfill their potential at work. The organization makes a significant investment in the development of a range of training. This helps new employees of the organization feel as part of the team and makes them more confident. This year, Boots put additional investment into developing their pharmacists and registered technicians supporting them with their continued professional development. DISCOUNT FOR STAFF PURCHASES: Employees get discounts for purchases on Boots and non-boots products. They obtain 12% discount on Non-boots products and 25% discount for boots products. Every employee, within a year gets double discounts for 2days, which means 25% and 50% for non-Boots and Boots products respectively. This makes them want to stay in the organization. * HEAL TH INSURANCE: Boots believes that their responsibility is to look after their colleagueÃ¢â¬â¢s health which will help them deliver better customer service. This is particularly beneficial to the employees though this is not compulsory. It encourages them to stay with the organization hence longevity of service, intimate working knowledge and greater output. (www. boots. com) * RETAINING AND PROMOTION: The organization is decidedly particular about recruiting, retaining and promoting diverse employees in the organization. Therefore they strive for this through hard work and hence contribute enormously to the success of the organization. * ATTRACTIVE REMUNERATION: Salary is also another factor that encourages employees to work. If they are well paid they feel like coming to work coupled with a enjoyable working environment at Boots, their employees get an increase in salary every year especially when the economy is stable or growing. * HEALTH AND SAFETY: Boots always provide the right equipment to do the job. All the training regarding health and safety provide every employee to protect them as well as customers. (www. allianceboots. com) APPRAISAL SYSTEMS OF BOOTS: As mentioned above Boots appraises its employees once a year. They are informed when they are going to be appraised and what is expected of them. A form is given to each line manager for every employee just to tick the most suitable one. It describes the employees work performance. Feedback is given to employees, so they will know where to improve. The performance management cycle of Boots Plan for performance appraisal Informing employees about appraisal Feedback and working to achieve goal Performance appraisal of employees Appraisal systems depend upon the individual performance which includes quality of services, customer care knowledge, flexibility of working time, competences, skills, learning achievement, relationships with colleagues etc. ORGANISATIONAL RECORD KEEPING: It is where an organization records information from the time it creates to the time of its disposal. Record keeping is truly essential for an organization because it helps keeps the organization on track and thus achieves organizational goals. Record keeping helps the organization to monitors its financial transaction. In Boots, record keeping uses for verification financial transaction and recording information about employees such as employees personal data, training records, how many times an employee has been absent. Boots keeps its records for two years then at the end of the two the last year records destroyed and a new one is started again. (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Records_management) Boots always keep employees personal data secretly and maintain the rules and regulation of the Data Act. All employees have personal record file where all the information are stored in secret. (www. 123helpme. com) CONCLUSION: Boots has a outstanding reputation about health and beauty products at the UK as well as all over the world. It is a delightful place to work everyone says. They have to work closely with manufacturers and pharmacists to improve health among the local communities as well as national level. Boots should give priorities about customersÃ¢â¬â¢ loyalty, retention, communication and in store marketing. In the current economic recession in the UK, they have to monitor all the financial activities to minimize the cost. There will be commitment and clear indicators from top level to lower level. Motivation is essential to business success. Boots needs to pay more attention about employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ learning and development to meet the future demands of the organization. How to cite Case Study of Alliance Boots Plc, Free Case study samples
Monday, April 27, 2020
The Dyna Corporation, is a major global information systems and communications company. It was originated as an office equipment company and moved in the 1960s and 1970s into high-technology applications. In the 1980s the company became an industry leader by being the first to provide innovative and high quality products. The demand for products was so high that customers were willing to wait for months just to have them delivered. Growth and earnings slowed in the 1990s as the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s costs increased, value-added services and solutions were not offered, new products were slow to market, and the products were not meeting marketplace demands. Solutions packages that were offered by information technology and communications (ITC) consulting firms were winning high-margin client business from Dynacorp who did not have a competitive concept. The gap that Dynacorp had created in the technical product market was shrinking due to gains by technology manufacturers. Dynacorp was not changing fast enough to keep pace with competitors. We will write a custom essay sample on Organizational Structure and Strategic Design Lens or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Problem The goal to remain an industry leader in technological innovation and comprehensive packaged solutions is being pursued by Dynacorp through the following objectives * Produce and offer new technologies within project plan timelines to obtain the technical leadership advantage in the market * Within two years: * Drive product offerings by identifying changes in the marketplace * Reduce product costs to remain competitive Rebuild market share by increasing relevance and profitability The Chief Executive Officer (CEO) charged an internal task for with the duty of exploring the major challenges that Dynacorp was facing. These included the high costs, slow pace of providing the market with new products, and the need to increase value for customers. A consulting firm that was experienced in the ITC industry was brought in to work with the task force. The end result was that a recommendation was posed to restructure Dynacorp into a Front/Back organization. This was accepted and man dated by the CEO. The new structure was designed to maintain the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s founding tenets of strong customer relationships and deep knowledge of market characteristics while simultaneously improving upon to the integration of technology development and production. Two years after the restructure the company is still facing low gross margins and struggles to meet both revenue and profit targets. Foreign and domestic competition continues to erode DynacorpÃ¢â¬â¢s market share. This erosion is hastened by the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to effectively lower product cost and get new products to market in a timely fashion. Packaged solutions are still not available through Dynacorp. The impact of this continued decline is poor investor relations and lost market value. There is also a lack of organizational congruence and misalignment of supporting systems and processes which have been created during the new reorganization period. Many skills and attitudes at all levels of management have been mismatched and do not integrate with the current needs. There are no clearly defined job descriptions or standard operating procedures in place to guide employees. Managers of branches and product lines are compensated on performance against revenue and margin goals rather than addressing customer needs. These issues persist within the new organizational structure and continue to have a negative effect on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s overall daily operation. The engineering group appears to being using its considerable political power in such a manner as to hinder the accomplishment of the strategic plan, and this carries the problems of the old culture through to the new. Continued misalignment of personnel and operational inefficiency diminish the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to compete in the market. The lack of efficiency effects the day-to-day operations of the organization and the morale of employees; it also has a great effect on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s year-end numbers and ability for future growth. Analysis of Alternatives Strategic Design Lens As Dynacorp outgrew its functional structure it began to experience common disadvantages of such organizational types. These disadvantages include unresponsiveness to changes in the market and to customers. Restructuring to Front/Back revealed a structural disadvantage that is identical to the functional structure: poor integration between market needs and technology development. An additional disadvantage incurred due to the restructure was inadequate integration and synergy between the front and back ends. Alternative structures such as grouping by output/product or grouping by market are not options as they would result in Ã¢â¬Å"duplication of activities and resources, the erosion of deep technical expertise, missed opportunities for synergies and learningÃ¢â¬ (Ancona, Kochan, Scully, Van Maanen, amp; Westney, 2009, p. M2-19). The matrix structure provided a potential positive aspect in that it would provide a needed cross-functional linking mechanism by mixing the functional structure with grouping by output/product, but the complexity, cost, dual systems, and dual roles resulting from the matrix structure historically resulted in either the functional or the output/product system becoming more powerful than the other. Political Lens The political system within Dynacorp appears to be one with a history of operating in separate silos. The old Dynacorp showed engineering to be the strongest and most prestigious division and most top management came from this area. When most of the leadership assignments of the new Business Units (BU) came from the old engineering division it was revealed that engineering still held the power. One indicator of the political strength was the difficulty Dynacorp experienced in moving new product designs between engineering and manufacturing. The new Dynacorp combined engineering and manufacturing into BUs, and due to the political history between these old divisions it becomes imperative that they must learn to work together. The new structure must get buy-in from all employees, find allies, and build coalitions and networks that are in sync with company goals. Key players in the BUs must work to bridge structural gaps. Cultural Lens Because of the restructure, employees are in new roles and are interacting with different groups. Within the new structure a culture must be fostered among the employees that will allow them to find new allies, create new networks and mix up the previous subcultures. Position descriptions and training will have to be provided in order for the employees to become fully functioning. The new political structure must be the driver that aligns cultural and political areas of Dynacorp. Individual rewards rather than team rewards must be reviewed. Recommended Solutions Strategic Design Lens Based on the analysis of the alternatives, the best strategic design for Dynacorp is the Front/Back with strengthened linking mechanisms to facilitate growth of information sharing, product delivery, and creation of solution packages. Because skills are mismatched within the workforce management must review where and how employees work, establish HR policies and rules governing job duties, deploy employees across multiple teams (cross-training), provide training, implement standard operating procedures, and implement performance evaluations. Management must also eliminate the incentive and control system that has carried over from the functional structure and replace it with a more balanced incentive plan. HR executives need to take the lead in developing the social networks that are vital to the capture and transfer of knowledge. Team tasks are to be structured to define function, communication strategy, and define the final decision-maker. Management must review the existing liaison positions and modify if necessary. New cross-functional teams to monitor customer feedback and new technology innovations are required to include updated reporting structures that specify data input requirements Political Lens Managers must use network analysis to determine the informal networks (advice, trust, communication) within the organization. Network mapping will also identify network holes along with other communication patterns that may need to be implemented or dissolved. Other important data gathered may be analyzed to indicate the level of power possessed by engineering and show where that power may be impeding progress toward accomplishment of the strategic plan. This may reveal a need to modify roles of assignment in order to assist in altering the old culture that appears to have carried over. Cultural Lens In the footsteps of IBM, Dynacorp needs to change from an Ã¢â¬Å"inward-looking culture to an outward-looking culture focused on serving customers and beating the competitionÃ¢â¬ (Ancona, Kochan, Scully, Van Maanen, amp; Westney, 2009, p. M8-8). By becoming an outward-looking culture, employees will be able to attract customers that were previously alienated and re-establish Dynacorp as the major global information systems and communications company. Position descriptions and training must be provided in order for employees to excel in their new roles, become fully functional, and operate efficiently. Individual BU employees will be rewarded and acknowledged upon BU performance rather than rewarded on individual employee performance. Cultural diversity training will be needed to enhance the working relationships and overall operations with the Indonesia plant. Implementation Strategic Design Lens From a strategic design perspective, Dynacorp must clearly define and distribute their mission, vision, values, goals, and standard operating procedures to the entire organization; these will be the guidelines for all political and cultural actions. Management will hire a new transition manager from outside the company to lead the effort of helping to align current employees in the new structure. The transition manager must assign special purpose groups (e. g. task forces, pilot projects, and training courses), develop processes (such as problem identification), and governance roles to enforce and track progress of immediate needs (phase one modifications) for all levels of employees while continuing to document issues and data to address additional issues in phase two modifications. This will include a review of skill mismatches, training needs, expectations of job duties, implementing a new incentive system, and implementing performance evaluations for all levels of employees. Management will perform a network analysis to analyze informal networks and identify network holes, mark detrimental networks for dissolution, and adopt effective networks. It is highly recommended that training be implemented on Six Sigma quality principles to facilitate the Ã¢â¬Å"understanding of customer needs, and striving for continuous improvementÃ¢â¬ (Snell amp; Bohlander, 2013, p. ). Two linking mechanisms will be implemented to connect people and groups. The first is to identify planning groups (build coalitions) to identify the major challenges and develop SMART goals that will address these challenges. The second will create temporary cross-unit groups to kick off the problem solving and plan for ongoing permanent cross-unit groups. Political Lens From the political perspec tive, required employee alignment changes may be a result of efforts by the new transition manager. Because of the current misalignment of power held by the engineering group, these alignment changes may face challenges. Enforcement of required job duties will be mandatory. The dissolving of existing networks, both formal and informal, will cause a political shakeup and may be challenged. Cultural Lens From the cultural perspective, an increase in corporate communication will be required to keep all employees informed and motivated toward organizational goals, future endeavors, customer needs and expectations that will grow the outward-looking culture. All employees must be provided their position description so they are aware of their job duties. Employees with insufficient training for their position must be provided training. All employees must be presented the new reward system. Results Organizations are characterized by inertia. The drive is from the top, and when implemented the strategic changes will train employees for their new roles and align the roles properly, which will result in fully functional employees. Linking mechanisms will be developed that will facilitate communication both inside and outside the organization. Changes made at the structural design level will flow down to the political level and benefit Dynacorp by balancing the power and empowering all. Cross-functional teams will work together to achieve the strategic vision of the organization. Structural changes will flow down to modify the cultural level. There will now be employees who can do their job better, address customer needs more fully, and understand the needs of the market. Information will flow freely up and down to increase innovation.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
Critique Of School-to-work Programs Now we have to Work in School In her article "An Avenue to High Academic Standards,"Ã senior editor Lynn Olson of Education Week, a national newspaper which covers topics of kindergarten to 12th grade education, promotes efficient school-to-work programs which combine the learning found in high school and the learning from job internships because Olson feels such programs prepare high school students for college and their workplace. Olson's argument is appealing because her motive is to help high school students deal with a problem, their transition to college and the workplace. So should we agree with Olson that school-to-work programs be instituted in schools? No, because although Olson's intent to help high school students is honorable, whether supplementing academic curricula with workplace teachings through an internship will help a majority of students prepare for work is not conclusive. School-to-work programs should not be utilized in high schools because the experience a student has in a job internship during high school may differ from the experience the student will have in the workplace.English: Class in Samdach Euv High School, Siem Re...Lynn Olson explains that school-to-work programs integrate teaching academics and skills for the workplace through an internship to prepare students for college and careers. High school internships prepare students for college and careers by showing students that success in academic courses results in success in their current work programs and eventually their future careers. Once students realize the connection between academics and success in their internships and careers, students have been inclined to undertake more academic coursework in high school. After graduating high school, positive experiences with internships continue to motivate students to take on academic coursework by encouraging students to enroll in college because students want to have successful careers in the field they interned in. To ensu re students reach their next goal of a successful career...
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Thugs or Thuggees of India The Thugs or Thuggees were organized gangs of criminals in India who preyed upon trade caravans and wealthy travelers.Ã They operated like a secret society, and often reportedly included otherwise respectable members of society.Ã The leader of a Thuggee group was called a jemadar, a term that means essentially boss-man.Ã Thugs would meet travelers along the road and befriend them, sometimes camping and traveling with them for several days.Ã When the time was right, the Thugs would strangle and rob their unsuspecting travel companions, burying the bodies of their victims in mass graves not far from the road, or throwing them down wells. The Thugs may have come into existence as early as the 13th century CE. Although members of the group came from both Hindu and Muslim backgrounds, and all different castes, they shared in the worship of the Hindu goddess of destruction and renewal, Kali. Murdered travelers were considered as offerings to the goddess.Ã The killings were highly ritualized; the Thugs did not want to spill any blood, so they usually strangled their victims with a rope or a sash. A certain percentage of the stolen goods would also be donated to a temple or shrine honoring the goddess. Some men passed down the rituals and secrets of the Thugs to their sons.Ã Other recruits would apprentice themselves to established Thug masters, or gurus, and learn the trade in that way.Ã Occasionally, young children who were accompanying a victim would be adopted by the Thug clan and trained in the ways of the Thugs, as well. It is quite strange that some of the Thugs were Muslim, given the centrality of Kali in the cult.Ã In the first place, murder is forbidden in the Quran, excepting only lawful executions:Ã Do not kill a soul that God has made sacrosanct... Whosoever kills a soul, unless it be for murder or for wreaking corruption in the land, it shall be as if he had killed all mankind.Ã Islam is also very strict about there being only one true God, so making human sacrifices to Kali is extremely un-Islamic. Nonetheless, both Hindu and Muslim Thugs continued to prey upon travelers in what is now India and Pakistan through the nineteenth century.Ã British colonial officials during the British Raj in India were horrified by the depredations of the Thugs, and set out to suppress the murderous cult. They set up a special police force specifically to hunt the Thugs, and publicized any information about Thuggee movements so that travelers would not be taken unawares. Thousands of accused Thugs were arrested.Ã They would be executed hanging, jailed for life, or sent into exile. By 1870, most people believe that the Thugs had been destroyed. The word Thug comes from the Urdu thagi, which is taken from the Sanskrit sthaga meaning scoundrel or cunning one. In southern India, the Thugs are also known as Phansigar, signifying strangler or user of a garotte, after their favorite method of dispatching their victims.